Tag Archives: propaganda

Down With Evangelistic Art!


“When art is used as a tool for evangelism, it is often insincere and second-rate, devalued to the level of propaganda. I would call this a form of prostitution, a misuse of one’s talent.” — H.R. Rookmaaker 

Also see Auden Explains Poetry, Propaganda, and Reporting.

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Auden Explains Poetry, Propaganda, And Reporting


“Poetry is speech at its most personal, the most intimate of dialogues. A poem does not come to life until a reader makes his response to the words written by the poet.

“Propaganda is a monologue which seeks not a response but an echo. To recognize this is not to condemn all propaganda as such. Propaganda is a necessity of all human social life. But to fail to recognize the difference between poetry and propaganda does untold mischief to both: poetry loses its value and propaganda its effectiveness.

“Whatever real social evil exists, poetry, or any of the arts for that matter, is useless as a weapon. Aside from direct political action, the only weapon is factual reportage—photographs, statistics, eyewitness reports.”

—W.H. Auden, in “A Short Defense of Poetry,” an address given at the International PEN Conference in Budapest, October 1967

Spreading that rumor about you (social cohesion & the need to believe)


What’s fascinating is how and why a rumor spreads, even if the content of the rumor is unremarkable or ridiculous.

One of my courses this semester uses a textbook with a section of readings by people who have researched and studied rumors and conspiracy theories.

Two brief excerpts:

Social cohesion

“Rumors frequently spread through informational cascades. The basic dynamic behind such cascades is simple: once a certain number of people appear to believe a rumor, others will believe it too, unless they have good reason to believe that it is false. Most rumors involve topics on which people lack direct or personal knowledge, and so most of us defer to the crowd. As more people defer, thus making the crowd grow, there is a real risk that large groups of people will believe rumors even though they are entirely false.” — Cass R. Sunstein, in On Rumors

(Note: In the above sense, rumors have an impact similar to “social proof.”)

The need to believe

“Rumors and conspiracy theories can only thrive in the minds of people who are predisposed to believe them. Successful propagators of fringe theories don’t just send random balloons into the atmosphere. Rather, they tap into the preexisting beliefs and biases of their target audiences.” — Gregory Rodriguez, in the Los Angeles Times, Sept. 28, 2009

Also see:

‘Whisper campaigns’ and rumors and gossip

The reality of pastoral gossip, or, Pastor Mark Driscoll trains you in godly leadership

Postscript to ‘the reality of pastoral gossip’ — a personal experience

Following yesterday’s protest against Pastor Mark Driscoll, an analysis & critique of the video behind the uproar


First, here’s some context and news from yesterday’s post on the Seattle Post-Intelligencer‘s Strange Bedfellows blog:

In a reversal of what normally happens inside a church, about 65 people stood outside Mars Hill Church in Bellevue on Sunday and called on the pastor of the mega-church to acknowledge his sins and repent.

The quiet, peaceful demonstration — “It’s very unusual to have evangelicals protesting,” said participant Jim Henderson — was directed at the church’s controversial, authoritarian and domineering co-founder and senior pastor, Mark Driscoll.

Driscoll claimed in a video last week that his critics had chosen to remain anonymous. The central message of the protest: “We are not anonymous.” On Sunday, ex-members outside carried signs of what they were not permitted to do inside Mars Hill: “Question Mark.”

“People have been harmed, hurt,” said 17-year-old Bailey Strom, who passed up a day of lifeguard duty and drove over from Yakima with his family to join the protest. Strom’s parents were married by Driscoll. Now, said father Gerd Strom: “Suddenly he became very important and disconnected. Nobody can talk to him.”

The protest came hours after the second resignation of the week by an “outside” member of the church’s Board of Advisers and Accountability. The departure of James MacDonald followed that of Paul Tripp, although both will keep ties to the church.

So now let’s look back at part of what caused the flareup: the video, which was actually released two weeks ago now.

The video of July 18 (posted on Mars Hill’s The Weekly blog for the July 21 slot), was entitled, “Church Family Update From Pastor Mark.”

Having watched the video, I was drawn to the tone and sincerity of Pastor Mark’s message.

I also appreciated some of the things he claimed about himself, which I’ll get to in a minute.

However, in light of the many recent controversies surrounding both Driscoll and Mars Hill Church, in light of some seemingly dishonest or surprisingly ignorant statements made on the video, in light of the video’s introduction and presentation, the message feels like spin-doctoring and damage-control.

In other words, the video makes yesterday’s protest understandable.

(Less understandable is why anyone remains in the Driscoll audience.)

The video seems designed to make a close listener skeptical. Let’s look at a few issues.

The Elements of Propaganda

The video was embedded in a blog post with this introductory text:

We started the Mars Hill Weekly to increase our communication to you. With that in mind, before Pastor Mark enjoys some much needed annual vacation time with his family, he sat down at Mars Hill Bellevue and recorded a video update for you, our church family. Please take a few moments to hear from Pastor Mark about his heart for Mars Hill Church.

If you’re older than 30, you ought to recognize that introductory text as corporation-culture, public-relations-speak.

I’ll note some specific aspects that were like fingernails on the chalkboard.

1. The attempt to be generous backfires (probably because it’s a self-conscious attempt to be deliberately generous when an ongoing lack of generosity has been publicly exposed).

In the introduction, the mentality I hear is something like, “The king has stepped down from his throne to speak with you.” How kind and noble of them to increase their communication, as if the members are serfs, not vested interests.

2. Despite the Mars Hill Church motto “It’s All About Jesus,” notice it’s really about Pastor Mark and his heart for Mars Hill Church.

Anyone who genuinely wants to hear about Driscoll’s heart right now has been thoroughly hypnotized.

Forty-plus elders have left the Mars Hill Church organization within about 3 years.

So maybe Pastor Mark’s heart is especially, uniquely, directly the problem.

How much of his humble pie will you eat?

Let me use a hyperbolic analogy. I’ll overstate my case for the sake of illustrating my point.

An abusive husband is always an ace at apologies and promises after the punches have done their damage.

Again, it’s an exaggerated analogy, but it’s something to think about while watching the video: a lot of damage has already been done (witness this incredibly thorough blog).

So, we get to hear about his heart just before he leaves for some “much needed” vacation (from multiple self-inflicted crises) time — he’s squeezing us into his busy schedule.

He recorded this “video update for you, our church family.”

For you, dear ones — gather around and Father will speak to you!

(Better yet, Captain von Trapp is going to put the kids to bed and give Maria the evening off. What an amazing man.)

The entire text introduction screams calculation and manipulation.

3. Now, roll the tape.

Notice how the video opens with an empty chair.

Then, as Driscoll steps into the video shot and sits down, a Bible is the first thing we see, pages shine with a flourish in front of the lens.

Consider: If a political candidate or a president had done that very move, and a Bible with shining pages was the first thing we saw, we’d know it was a carefully crafted, timed, and rehearsed symbolic and propagandistic move.

The Christianity Today and Patheos.com blogs would overflow with commentary on the politician’s conspicuous possession of a Bible.

Is it fair to use a similar standard for a minister? Maybe; maybe not. After all, shouldn’t we expect a minister to carry a Bible? So I’m not sure if that was meant to suggest something to the viewer or to motivate the viewer’s point of view.

Wait — I spoke too soon.

Then, like the dog in President Nixon’s “Checkers Speech,” the personally significant Bible and the personally significant chair — both with specific histories in his life and his church — become props for Driscoll’s description of Mars Hill Church growing from a little Bible study in his little house to a big church today.

As Warren Throckmorton noted, Driscoll excluded two other founding members from his Checkers Speech-like narrative of the church’s history.

Maybe the Checkers Speech reference is a stretch. (Feedback? Comment below.)

Either way, holding a Bible and saying good scripted things for a camera are not indications of a healthy leader.

But to encourage members to stay on the boat (which is suffering from bailing leaders and sinking donations), he calls them “Some of the most lovely, generous, resilient people” — although what’s doubtful is whether Pastor Mark has been as loving, generous, and resilient toward them, as the next major heading below might demonstrate.

5. He says some locations of Mars Hill Church have wanted a lot of information about recent crises while others have requested very little, so Driscoll and the leadership had to figure out how to best communicate.

That sounds like crisis management in a political campaign’s war room. “How do we managed this?” leaks through the spoken words.

Solution? Just tell the truth to everyone — be as open and honest as possible — and if major legal considerations prohibit full disclosure, say so.

(When I was a member of a very large church in N.C., the pastor screwed-up, and the church leadership did just that.)

What should really be disgusting — and should really be a thing of the past — is a belief that church leaders ought to withhold organizational information from a congregation.

Outright Dishonesty or Staggering Ignorance?

6. Warren Throckmorton excerpted the following segment of Driscoll’s video:

As well one of the things that has been complex is the fact that a lot of the people that we are dealing with in this season remain anonymous. And so we don’t know how to reconcile or how to work things out with people because we’re not entirely sure who they are. And so that has made things a little more complex and difficult as well.

That statement is a major problem. It’s at the heart of yesterday’s protest, which featured the sign, “We Are Not Anonymous.”

Throckmorton makes a two-point reply to Driscoll’s outrageous statement. Part of the second point reads:

I have interviewed over 50 former Mars Hill leaders and members who have made their concerns known to the executive elders with full identification. I have seen some of the formal charges and reviewed emails from executive elders and members where there is full identification of the former member’s identity. However, according to the former members, the leaders have not followed up on the issues.

Love your enemies, but hate your former church members?

Throckmorton says a woman named Bina E. is one of the former Mars Hill members who (with her husband) wrote Driscoll a letter in 2008. According to Throckmorton, Bina E.’s comments on Friday’s video are in part as follows:

The comments about anonymous concerns are amazing to me. We wrote Mark [Driscoll] personally with our concerns in 2008– a gentle, truthful, heartfelt plea with our names on it. We received no response from him except from other pastors who said Mark was rocked by our letter, but that we burned our bridges with him. That was a sad thing to hear about the pastor who helped lead my husband to Christ and who married us. We also spoke directly with pastors, face to face, about our concerns before leaving– and when we left, we were dropped as friends by them after leaving; some more gradually and some more violently. (emphasis added)

Furthermore, a former close associate of Driscoll’s, Mike Anderson, posted this telling essay on why he left Mars Hill Church after about 10 years as a member. The essay was posted on July 1, three weeks before Driscoll’s video went live.

Driscoll knew nothing of Anderson’s departure?

But Driscoll says, “…we don’t know how to reconcile or how to work things out with people because we’re not entirely sure who they are…”

If he’s not reading the reporting and blogging about him, he needs to be.

We’ve all admired political leaders who’ve said, “I don’t look at the polls.”

We’ve all, on second thought, suspected they were lying, but never mind.

Sometimes you have to know exactly what’s being said about you. It is relevant to Driscoll’s career and his admirable claim, made in the same video, that he is willing to learn from anyone.

Actually, he used the royal “we” — We are willing to learn from anyone, apparently speaking for his entire leadership team. That is the right attitude.

Love-bombing / love’s bombing

7. Driscoll ends by saying, “I love you.”

Oh, this ought to be a good thing. It really should.

But, again, it feels manipulative, and not only in the context of the text introduction and the rest of the video.

As Driscoll gets to the end of his message, he begins to talk more and more about love, before he finally says, “I love you.”

In the study of cults, or at least controlling and abusive organizations, some researchers have identified “love-bombing” as a recruitment tactic.

While love-bombing is a one-on-one persuasion, seduction, or recruitment strategy, it shares with Driscoll’s mass-message a critical feature: the use of “love” in a manipulative manner.

In light of that, consider the evidence against Driscoll loving his followers. It’s above, it’s on Throckmorton’s blog, it’s in the Post-Intelligencer blog linked at the beginning of this post, it’s in other accessible places.

Is this unfair? Well, let me try a new angle on a cliche’. We have evidence of a duck’s foot. We have evidence of a duck’s bill. We have evidence of a duck’s feathers.

Do we have a duck?

I don’t know for certain, but in his essay, former Driscoll colleague Mike Anderson included a link that read, “warning signs that help identify if you are in a cult.” Should that count as evidence of another piece of the duck?

The Age of Mass Messaging

As I’ve tried to bring my mind to the Mars Hill and Mark Driscoll crises, I have continued to recall a thought from Jacques Ellul’s book, Propaganda: The Formation of Men’s Attitudes.

I can’t place the exact quotation in the book, but here’s the gist of it as admittedly filtered through my memory:

Propaganda has become such a normal mode in our time and its techniques have become so internalized in our psychology, people do not even realize when they are being propagandists.

Essentially, no other mode of communication is available to them naturally or intuitively.

The Driscoll video was propaganda. Former leaders and former church members have seen through it.

 

What makes Chrnalogar’s book significant, and why is it relevant for today?


Recently, I used the book Twisted Scriptures to assess Mars Hill Church and Pastor Mark Driscoll’s leadership as reported on other blogs.

Before I used the book, I should have established its credibility.

Of course, nothing and no one carries full credibility across all spectra.

For that we can thank the successful infiltration of ideological mentalities and propagandistic modes of thinking.

In other words, a man could utter a perfectly true and practically applicable statement, and the first thing many of us would want to know is his affiliation and identity and worldview.

Even so, here is my attempt to identify the credible nature of the book:

The first edition of Twisted Scriptures: Breaking Free from Churches That Abuse was released by Zondervan in 1997. Revised editions appeared in 1998 and 2000.

On the back of my 2000 edition, author Mary Alice Chrnalogar is identified as a 19-year veteran of rescuing victims of cults and abusive church groups. She has conducted rescues and interventions in the United States, Australia, Canada, France, Israel, and Spain, according to the back of the book.

In the book’s acknowledgments, Chrnalogar says she consulted Timothy Brouns, a Baptist minister and graduate of Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary, and Stephen D. Martin, a pastor, graduate of Nazarene Theological Seminary and former staff member of Wellspring Retreat and Resource Center, a “restorative place for victims of controlling groups,” located in Athens, Ohio.

The back of the book cites Edward J. Green, Ph.D., the Guerry professor emeritus of psychology at the University of Tennessee. Dr. Green wrote, “This is controversial… many sheep will be told not to read it. Anyone told this should read it immediately. This is an important book — not only to help victims break out of bondage, but every pastor should be required to read it.”

The credentials of Chrnalogar and the above-mentioned men should suggest some credibility.

 

‘Evangelicalism tends toward message, even propaganda, rather than discovery and art’


This was an exciting discovery from a page on Philip Yancey’s website:

Evangelicalism tends toward message, even propaganda, rather than discovery and art.  Look at the passages preached on in evangelical churches: most come from the Epistles, which represent only 10 percent of the Bible.  What about all the rest—poetry, psalms, history, story?  Sadly, evangelicals tend to neglect them.

Christianity as propaganda; Christianity versus propaganda


Propaganda: The Formation of Men’s Attitudes by the late Jacques Ellul could have been written yesterday. Alarmingly current, the book was published in 1965. Marshall McLuhan, famed media theorist, praised Ellul’s book. Ellul, a sincere Christian and a leader in the relatively small French Protestant circles of his time, devoted part of his analysis of propaganda to the propagation of Christianity.

“Obviously, church members are caught in the net of propaganda and react pretty much like everyone else….

“Because Christians are flooded with various propagandas [in our media-driven age], they absolutely cannot see what they might do that would be effective and at the same time be an expression of their Christianity. Therefore, with different motivations and often with scruples, they limit themselves to one or another course presented to them by propaganda. They too take the panorama of the various propagandas for living political reality, and do not see where they can insert their Christianity in that fictitious panorama….

“At the same time, because of its psychological effects, propaganda makes the propagation of Christianity increasingly difficult. The psychological structures built by propaganda are not propitious to Christian beliefs. This also applies on the social plane. For propaganda faces the church with the following dilemma:

Either not to make propaganda — but then, while the churches slowly and carefully win a man to Christianity, the mass media quickly mobilizes the masses, and churchmen gain the impression of being ‘out of step,’ on the fringes of history, without the power to change a thing.

Or to make propaganda — this dilemma is surely one of the most cruel with which the churches are faced at present. For it seems that people manipulated by propaganda become increasingly impervious to spiritual realities, less and less suited for the autonomy of a Christian life….

“I already have stressed the total character of propaganda. Christians often claim they can separate material devices from propaganda techniques — i.e., break the system. For example, they think they can use press and radio without using the psychological principles of techniques that these media demand. Or that they can use these media without having to appeal to conditioned reflexes, myths, and so on. Or that they can use them from time to time, with care and discretion.

“The only answer one can give to these timid souls is that such restraint would lead to a total lack of effectiveness. If a church wants to use propaganda in order to be effective, just as all the others, it must use the entire system with all its resources; it cannot pick what it likes, for such distinctions would destroy the very effectiveness for which the church would make propaganda in the first place. Propaganda is a total system that one must accept or reject in its entirety.

“If the church accepts it, two important consequences follow. First of all, Christianity disseminated by such means is not Christianity. We have already seen the effect of propaganda on ideology. In fact, what happens as soon as the church avails itself of propaganda is a reduction of Christianity to the level of all other ideologies and secular religions.”